Degree Code: | I44 |

Degree Name: | B.SC. IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS |

Degree Type: | BACHELOR |

Degree Duration: | 4 |

Degree Description: | Click to View |

B.SC. IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS | |

Degree Courses: |
View |

**DEGREE REGULATIONS**

Admission Requirments | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Candidates must have attained the minimum University of Nairobi and School of Physical Sciences entry requirements. In addition, the prospective candidates must have attained a minimum grade of C+ in Physics or Physical Science and C+ in Mathematics at KCSE level OR principal passes in Mathematics and Physics at KACE/EAACE level. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Course Registration | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

3.1 Besides the general University of Nairobi and School of Physical Sciences regulations, students registered for the program must take at least 42 of the listed course units as scheduled, except where EXEMPTIONS are given.
3.2 A student may be - Request for exemption shall be made in writing, on admission, to the Dean of School of Physical Sciences and must be accompanied by officially endorsed supporting documents, including the syllabi for the relevant courses.
- Application for exemption will be considered only after payment of an Exemption Fee, as may be prescribed.
- Where the School resolves that exemption can only be granted through a test, the student shall be required to sit and pass the Ordinary Examinations in the appropriate units.
- The units for which such exemption is sought shall not exceed one-third (1/3) of the total number of units for the course.
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COURSES OFFERED | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

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SECOND YEAR
* These are elective courses
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Award of Degree | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

5.1 To qualify for award of the degree, a candidate shall have passed in a minimum of TEN units in each of the 1
5.2. The degree award and classification shall be based on the average score of ALL units taken in the 3 5.3. The final award of the degree shall be classified as below based on the average score as defined in Regulation 5.2 First Class Honours 70 – 100% Second Class Honours (Upper Division) 60 – 69% Second Class Honours (Lower Division) 50 – 59% Pass 40 – 49%
5.4. A candidate who repeats the 3 | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Examinations Regulations | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

4.1. All units shall be examined by Ordinary Examinations during the academic year in which they are taken. Such Ordinary Examinations shall consist of Continuous Assessments and a ONE AND HALF-HOUR end-of-semester examination for each UNIT. Unless otherwise stated, end-of-semester examinations will comprise 70% of the total UNIT marks whereas Continuous Assessment will account for 30%. Continuous Assessment shall consist of several evaluations based on a suitable combination of practicals, tutorials, assignments and class tests. 4.2. Each unit shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks, and the pass mark shall be 40%. Marks shall be translated into letter grades as follows: 70 – 100% A 60 – 69% B 50 – 59% C 40 – 49% D 39% and below E (FAIL) - A candidate may, on the recommendation of the School Board of Examiners and approval by Senate, be admitted to Special Examinations at the next appropriate end-of-semester examination, in the units for which the candidate failed to sit for Ordinary Examinations at the prescribed time. Special Examinations shall be graded as Ordinary Examinations.
4.4. A candidate who, whether by Ordinary Examinations or Special Examinations or after repeating the year of study;
(a) Passes in at least TEN units in the 1
(b) Passes in EIGHT units in the 4 4.5. A candidate who, whether by Ordinary or Special Examination or after repeating the year of study, -
Passes in SEVEN to NINE units in the 1
^{st}or 2^{nd}, or SIX to SEVEN in 3^{rd}year of study including exempted units shall, on the recommendation of the School Board of Examiners and approval by Senate, be allowed to proceed conditionally to the subsequent year of study, but shall be required to**resit**the end-of-semester examinations in the failed units. -
For each such unit the candidate shall resit the examination only a maximum of TWO times during any appropriate end-of-semester examinations by the end of the 4
^{th}year of study; - Any unit resat shall be marked out of 100% and Continuous Assessment shall not be taken into account;
- For a resit a score of less than 40% shall be regarded as the agreed marks, but for scores of 40% and above, the agreed marks shall be recorded as 40%.
(b) Passes in SIX to SEVEN units in the 4
4.6. A candidate shall, on the recommendation of the School Board of Examiners and approval by Senate, be allowed to (i) Be required to register for ONLY the units previously failed or not completed. (ii) Be required to attend lectures and tutorials as well as to carry out practicals and to sit for assessment tests in all units repeated. (iii) Be allowed to repeat the particular year of study ONLY ONCE.
4.7 A candidate shall be (i) In any year of study the candidate passes in less than FOUR units. (ii) The candidate fails to follow the prescribed units of the course.
(iii) The candidate after repeating 4
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Introduction | View Details | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

This degree course is designed to train graduates who will have the relevant skills to work in areas of Basic and Applied Space Sciences, such as Satellite Space Stations (e.g., San Marco in Malindi), Astronomical observatories and Aeronautical Engineering Departments and Remote Sensing. The mounting of this course is meant to be the basis for serious capacity building to attain the critical mass of expertise needed for the development of space science in Kenya, which ultimately will be critical to the establishment of a Kenya Space Agency, whose establishment is long overdue. Currently Kenya is engaged in some joint Space Science activities, with the Italian Government through the San Marco Project in Malindi. The units offered under this program are meant for B.Sc. Astronomy and Astrophysics degree programme covered in Eight regular University of Nairobi semesters.
The capacity of this course is envisaged to be |

**DEGREE COURSES**

Level : Non Specified | |||

Semester: Non Specified | |||

Course Code |
Course Name |
Course Hours | |

SPH 103 | Waves And Optics | View Description | |

Waves And Optics Description Description of wave motion; The general equation of wave motion; Elastic waves in a solid rod and in a spring; Pressure waves in a gas column; Transverse waves in a string; Transverse elastic waves in a bar; Waves in 2-Dimensions: Wavefronts, Reflection of waves, refraction of waves; Surface waves in a liquid; Reflection and transmission of transverse waves at interface; Group velocity; Sound waves: Pressure waves in a gas column, standing longitudinal elastic waves, vibrating systems and sources of sound; Beats; The Doppler effect; Acoustics; Fermat’s principle and its applications; Aplanatic points and aplanatic surfaces: for reflection, refraction; Application of aplanatic points of a spherical surface; Reflection at a spherical surface of mirror, lenses and Lens aberrations; Optic instruments; The prism: dispersion. | |||

Level : 1 | |||

Semester: Non Specified | |||

Course Code |
Course Name |
Course Hours | |

SPA 101 | Introductory Astronomy | View Description | |

Introductory Astronomy Description Overview of astronomy; The origins of astronomy; The night sky; The magnitude system, The celestial sphere; The Earth’s motion around the sun; Time systems; Distances and basic distance determination; The Moon and its motion | |||

SPA 101 | Introductory Astronomy | View Description | |

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SPA 102 | Gravitation And The Solar System | View Description | |

Gravitation And The Solar System Description The geocentric universe of the ancients; Copernicus and the Heliocentric model; Galileo’s telescopic observations & discoveries; Kepler’s analyses of Tycho Brahe’s observations; Newtonian Gravitation; Tidal forces | |||

SPH 102 | Electricity And Magnetism I | View Description | |

Electricity And Magnetism I Description ## Current and charge; Magnetic flux and flux density; Magnetic flux density inside a long solenoid and at a distance from a long straight wire; Force on a current carrying conductor; Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field; The moving coil galvanometer and extension of its range as ammeter and voltmeter; Force between current carrying conductors; Potentials and emf; Ohm’s law; Resistance, resistivity, and its temperature coefficient; Potentiometer and its use as potential divider in measuring range of p.d’s; Electromagnetic induction; Transformers; Capacitors; Electrostatics; Cathode Ray Oscilloscope; The CRO as a voltmeter, a clock, a display device | |||

SPH 103 | Waves And Optics | View Description | |

Waves And Optics Description Description of wave motion; The general equation of wave motion; Elastic waves in a solid rod and in a spring; Pressure waves in a gas column; Transverse waves in a string; Transverse elastic waves in a bar; Waves in 2-Dimensions: Wavefronts, Reflection of waves, refraction of waves; Surface waves in a liquid; Reflection and transmission of transverse waves at interface; Group velocity; Sound waves: Pressure waves in a gas column, standing longitudinal elastic waves, vibrating systems and sources of sound; Beats; The Doppler effect; Acoustics; Fermat’s principle and its applications; Aplanatic points and aplanatic surfaces: for reflection, refraction; Application of aplanatic points of a spherical surface; Reflection at a spherical surface of mirror, lenses and Lens aberrations; Optic instruments; The prism: dispersion. | |||

SPH 107 | Programming Methods | View Description | |

Programming Methods Description ## Structured programming techniques using a high level language; Algorithms and Flowcharts; Program structure; Program development through step-wise refinement; Data types and structures; Control structures; Records, Files and use of Dynamic Link Libraries; Sub-programs; Scope of variables; Order of declaration; Program design tools | |||

SMA 103 | Calculus I | View Description | |

Calculus I Description Limits and continuity of functions; Differentiation of functions of a single variable; Parametric and implicit differentiation; Antiderivatives and applications to areas | |||

SMA 104 | Calculus Ii | View Description | |

Calculus Ii Description Applications of differentiation; Taylor’s theorem; Mean value theorems of differential calculus; Methods of integration; Applications of integration | |||

SMA 140 | Introduction To Probability And Statistics | View Description | |

Introduction To Probability And Statistics Description Frequency distributions; Relative and cumulative distributions; Various frequency curves; Mean, mode, median, quartiles and percentiles, standard deviation; Symmetrical and skewed distributions; Probability: sample space and events; Definition of probability, properties of probability; Random variables; Probability distributions; Expected values of random variables; Particular distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, geometric, hypergeometric, uniform, exponential and normal; Bivariate frequency distributions; Joint probability tables and Marginal probabilities | |||

SPA 102 | Gravitation And The Solar System | View Description | |

Gravitation And The Solar System Description The geocentric universe of the ancients; Copernicus and the Heliocentric model; Galileo’s telescopic observations & discoveries; Kepler’s analyses of Tycho Brahe’s observations; Newtonian Gravitation; Tidal forces | |||

SPH 101 | Mechanics I | View Description | |

Mechanics I Description Scalars; Vectors: composition and resolution of coplanar vector; Rectilinear motion; Force; Newton's laws of motion and their applications; Linear momentum and its conservation; Impulse; Moments; Couples; Torque; Second law of equilibrium; Center of gravity; Work, Energy, Power; Principle of conservation of energy; Circular motion: angular velocity, angular acceleration, and rotation with constant angular acceleration; Rotational motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis; Moments of inertia; Angular momentum and its conservation; Rotational kinetic energy; Equations of motion; Elastic and inelastic collisions (1D & 2D); Hydrostatics: pressure in a fluid; Pressure gauges; Archimedes Principle; Hydrodynamics: equation of continuity, Bernoulli's Principle and its application, fluid flow; Pitot tube and sprays | |||

Level : 2 | |||

Semester: Non Specified | |||

Course Code |
Course Name |
Course Hours | |

SPA 201 | Light And Astronomical Optics | View Description | |

Light And Astronomical Optics Description ## The speed of light; The nature of light; Light and matter; Passage of light through the atmosphere; Basic Optics; Astronomical Telescopes; Physical limits of telescopes; Types of astronomical instruments; The information technology of astronomy | |||

SPA 202 | Introduction To The Solar System | View Description | |

Introduction To The Solar System Description Basic overview of the solar system; The Earth – Moon system; Planets and their satellites; Minor bodies in the solar system: The asteroids, Earth crossing asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects: Comets - structure, composition, the source of comets (Oort Cloud | |||

SPA 203 | Solar Physics | View Description | |

Solar Physics Description ## The Sun as a Star; Basic structure and appearance of the sun: composition, Limb darkening, Granulation, faculae, Convection cells, Sunspots, Suns rotation from Sunspots (differential rotation), Sunspot numbers (Maunder diagram) and solar cycle; The solar chromosphere and corona; The Sun’s magnetic field; Effect of Sun-Earth interactions on satellites and weather phenomena; Sun – Earth interactions; Effects on satellites; The Sun’s source of energy; The standard solar model; Helioseismology; Solar neutrino problem; Solar atmosphere | |||

SPH 201 | Mechanics Ii | View Description | |

Mechanics Ii Description Oscillatory motion: kinematics of SHM, force and energy of SHM, basic equation of SHM; The simple pendulum, superposition of two SHM – same direction, same frequency, same direction, different frequency; perpendicular directions; Coupled oscillators; Anharmonic oscillators; Damped oscillators; Force oscillators; Impendence of an oscillator; Fourier analysis of periodic function; Circular orbits and stability; Gravitational interaction: the law of gravitation, gravitational field and potential, inertial and gravitational mass; Variation in gravitational field strength due to latitude, altitude; Motion of planets and satellites – geostationary orbits; Relative velocity; Uniform relative translational motion; The Galilean transformation; Uniform relative rotational motion; Motion relative to the Earth; The Lorentz transformation; Lorentz transformation of velocities and accelerations; Consequences of the Lorentz transformation; Fizeau and Michelson-Morley experiments | |||

SPH 202 | Electricity And Magnetism Ii | View Description | |

Electricity And Magnetism Ii Description Gauss’s law and applications; Dielectrics; Magnetics; Magnetic field and forces; Circulating charges; Electromagnetic induction; A.C. Theory; Filters; Transients; Transmission lines; Electric and Magnetic vectors; Lorentz force; Energy of the Electric and magnetic fields; The magnetizing field; Magnetic susceptibility and permeability | |||

SPH 203 | Structure And Properties Of Materials | View Description | |

Structure And Properties Of Materials Description The Atom and molecule (models); Atomic and molecular bonding; Phases of matter; Concepts of pressure, volume and temperature; Phase transitions; Metals and non-metals; Alloys and composites; Elasticity Strain, stress and work; Deformation, Fracture and oxidation; Introduction to X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy; Surface tension; Equation of state and internal energy; Kinetic theory of ideal gases; Vapour pressure; Many-particle systems; Equilibrium; Macroscopic description of systems; Extensive and intensive variables; Temperature and the Zeroth law of thermodynamics; Reversible, irreversible, quasistatic and adiabatic processes; Thermal Radiation and the origin of Quantum Theory; Bohr’s atomic model; Franz-Hertz experiment; Particle wave quality; Davison-Germer experiment; Wave mechanics and Schroedinger’s equation; Ehrenfest Theorem; Basic postulates; Eigen functions and Eigen values; Correspondence principle; Degeneracy | |||

SPH 204 | Mathematical Physics I | View Description | |

Mathematical Physics I Description Infinite series, series expansion; Methods of integration; Linear algebra and vector spaces; Ordinary differential equations; Closed forms and series solutions by integral transform; Introduction to Group theory and tensor analysis; Line and volume integral; Gradient, divergence and curl operators; Laurent expansion | |||

SPH 205 | Instrumentation Electronics | View Description | |

Instrumentation Electronics Description Review of a.c. and d.c. circuits; Circuit networks and theorems; Physics of P-N Junctions: Diode; signal diodes, Breakdown diodes, photodiodes; Field Effect Transistors; Bipolar Transistors; Applications of such devices: amplifiers, power supplies, oscillators; Transmitters and receivers; Operational Amplifiers: principles of operation, current and voltage amplification, mathematical operations, oscillators; Signal conditioning: filters and amplifiers; Calibration; Display devices: LED, CRT | |||

SMA 201 | Advanced Calculus | View Description | |

Advanced Calculus Description Improper Integrals and their convergence; Mean value theorem of integral calculus; Functions of several variables and their applications; Center of masses and moments of inertia; Differential and integral calculus of functions of several variables (Taylor’s theorem, minimum and maximum points); Lagrange’s multipliers | |||

SMA 209 | Elements Of Algebra | View Description | |

Elements Of Algebra Description Vector space over R; Linear independence; Matrices: properties, operations, determinants, systems of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Quadratic forms; Orthogonal matrices, Matrix differentiation and maximization problems | |||

SMA 221 | Vector Analysis | View Description | |

Vector Analysis Description Vector calculus and applications; Gradient, divergence and curl; Green’s, Stoke’s and divergence theorems and related theorems; Curvilinear coordinates | |||

SMA 240 | Probabilty And Statistics I | View Description | |

Probabilty And Statistics I Description Moment and moment generating functions; Markov and Chebychev inequalities; Special univariate distributions; Bivariate probability distributions, independence, bivariate expectation; Regression and correlation: calculation of regression and correlation coefficients for bivariate data; Distributions functions of random variables; Bivariate normal distribution; Derived distributions such as chi-square, | |||

Level : 3 | |||

Semester: Non Specified | |||

Course Code |
Course Name |
Course Hours | |

SPA 301 | The Distant Stars | View Description | |

The Distant Stars Description Distances and motions of stars: Heliocentric parallax, the parsec and the light-year, Ground-based and Hipparcos parallaxes, proper motions of stars; Luminosity; Distance and Apparent Brightness; Blackbody laws and relation to star colour/temperature; Spectral sequence (OBAFGKM); Sizes of stars; The Hertzsprung Russell diagram; The Main Sequence; Determination of masses of stars – from binary systems; The Mass – Luminosity relation | |||

SPA 302 | The Evolution Of Stars | View Description | |

The Evolution Of Stars Description Birth of Stars: The interstellar medium, emission, reflection nebulae, dark clouds, globules, Protostar formation in dark clouds & giant molecular clouds, Newborn stars and their evolutionary tracks, Importance of clusters in stellar evolution studies, Evolution onto the main sequence, Mass gain and mass loss, Circum-stellar disks and jets, Formation triggers – supernovae; Post main-sequence evolution of stars: Estimating Main sequence lifetimes, The end of H-core burning – the red giant phase, He burning in red giants, H-R diagrams of clusters reveal evolutionary processes, Globular clusters, Pop I (metal poor) and Pop II (metal rich) stars; Non stationary processes in stars: Pulsation, Cepheids, RR Lyraes – distance scale, Interacting binary stars; The end states of stars: Low mass stars ( ~ 1 solar mass), Post MS evolution, Red giant, asymptotic giant branch, horizontal branch, Dredging – carbon stars, Helium shell flash, ABG stars, Planetary nebulae, White dwarfs (example of Sirius B), High Mass stars (M > 4 Mo)Shell burning (H, He, C, Ne, O, Si, Fe), Supernova explosions, SN1987A, Light echoes, neutrino detections, Supernova remnants, Neutron stars (pulsars), Properties of neutron stars, rotation and magnetic fields, spin down, pulsating X ray sources, Black holes, General relativity, Gravitational lensing, Gravitational redshift, Schwarzchild radius, Cygnus X-1, Super-massive BHs in galaxy cores | |||

SPA 303 | Galaxies And The Universe | View Description | |

Galaxies And The Universe Description The Milky Way galaxy: Visual structure, Magellanic Clouds, Formation of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen, Structure from 21-cm observations, Formation of spiral arms – density waves – star formation in arms, The galactic center, Rotation curve – missing mass, Our satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds; The other Galaxies, “Island universes” and Hubble’s proof of their distance (Cepheids), Classification of galaxy morphology – tuning fork diagram, Stellar populations in galaxies; Galax distances, Distance indicators parallax, sp parallax, Cepheids, RR Lyrae, Type Ia SN). Redshift - The Hubble Law, Galaxy interactions and mergers, Rotation curves and missing mass, Theories of galaxy formation, Active Galaxies, Quasars, Gamma-ray bursts; Cosmology: Age universe, Olbers paradox, Hubble expansion, The Big Bang, Cosmic particle horizon, Cosmic microwave background, Critical density; Extra-terrestrial life | |||

SPA 304 | Physics And Astronomy Practicals | View Description | |

Physics And Astronomy Practicals Description Selected physics experiments: Experiments on calibration of constant deviation spectrometer, diffraction, chromatic resolving power of spectrometer, modern photometry, reflection from dielectric surfaces, Young’s modulus, thermal conductivity; Selected experiments on: finding the latitude of a place by noting the altitude of the pole star, Suns declination, measurement of the Solar angular diameter, number of Sun spots and observing the phenomenon of Solar limb darkening by means of a photocell; Refraction effects of the atmosphere, Scintillation of the Stars, Identification of constellations, ecliptic, equinox, and some prominent stars using star chart, Telescope alignments and various mountings, measurements of magnitudes of stars; Basics of computer based image processing: Flat fielding, dark patterns, removal of cosmic rings, defects in detecting device and their removal, masking techniques | |||

SPA 305 | Introduction To Remote Sensing | View Description | |

Introduction To Remote Sensing Description The nature and interpretation of remotely sensed data; Data collection: from field, airborne, and space-borne sensors; Analysis of Various Types of Data: Data from the visible, infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; Application of physical concepts in data interpretation; Visual, photogrammetric, digital image processing, and GIS interpretation. | |||

SPH 302 | Thermodynamics | View Description | |

Thermodynamics Description The First law of thermodynamics; Work on a fluid, an electric cell, etc.; Thermodynamic potentials; Concept of a heat bath, Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics; Availability; Special equilibrium conditions; The four Maxwell relations; Heat capacities and their relations; Ideal gases; Simple thermodynamic engines; Carnot cycle; Phase equilibrium; Phase transitions; Critical points (triple points); Cryogenics and the Third law of thermodynamics | |||

SPH 304 | Electrodynamics I | View Description | |

Electrodynamics I Description Electric and magnetic field vectors; Lorentz force; Conservation of charge and continuity equation; Maxwell’s equations; Poynting’s vector; Energy density; Laplace and Poisson equations and solutions in cylindrical and spherical coordinates; Field energy in free space; Polarizability and dielectric tensors; Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties; Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism and Ferromagnetism
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SPH 306 | Mathematical Physics Ii | View Description | |

Mathematical Physics Ii Description Boundary value Problem; Partial Differential Equations: Method of Separation of Variables, Method of Characteristics; Legendre’ Polynomials and Bessel functions; Introduction to Group Theory; Tensor Analysis; Integral transforms; Variational Calculus; Fourier and Laplace Transforms | |||

SPH 308 | Physical Optics | View Description | |

Physical Optics Description Electromagnetic waves and spectrum; Interference and diffraction of light; Resolving power of optical instruments: microscope, telescope, diffraction grating; Refraction and transmission of light at interface; Plane and polarized waves; Polarization by reflection, double refraction; Transmission through a pile of plates; Scattering; Propagation of E-M waves in an anisotropic medium; Dischroism; The E-M spectrum; Optical activity; Introduction to Laser Physics | |||

SPH 311 | Introductory Geophysics | View Description | |

Introductory Geophysics Description The earth as a planet; The shape of the earth, the reference ellipsoid, the geoid; Gravity: measurement, the international gravity formula, reduction and interpretation of gravity data, isostacy. Seismology: Seismic waves; Seismic evidence of the earth’s structure, earthquakes; Geomagnetism: nature and variation of the earth’s magnetic field, magnetometers, magnetic anomalies; Geochronology and geological time scale; Heat flow: measurements, variation and sources; Geodynamics: sea flow floor spreading, earth’s main physical features; plate tectonics | |||

SPH 313 | Computational Physics | View Description | |

Computational Physics Description Number systems; Data and specification statements; ASCII codes; Computer file structure; Input/Output organization; Structured programming – High level languages (BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN, C/C++); Subroutines, Functions, Libraries; Compiler operation; Linking and locating object modules; Spreadsheets, Data Bases and word processing; Computational applications; Numerical methods: Linear and non-linear equations; Fourier transforms; Computer simulations and modeling; | |||

SPH 329 | Microwave Theory And Devices I | View Description | |

Microwave Theory And Devices I Description Microwave frequencies; Fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; Solution of scalar and vector electromagnetic equations; Interaction between electron and fields; Scattering and impedance; Microwaves elements and components; Microwave communication devices and systems; Microwave semiconductor electronic devices; Microwave junctions; Microwave transistors and tunnel diodes: BJT HBT (heterojunction transistor); Microwave FET: JFET (Junction FET), MESFET (metal semiconductor FET), MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor FET), HEMT (High electron mobility transistor); Microwave memory devices; CCD (charge-coupled devices); Transferred electron devices (TED); Gunn effect diodes; LSA (Limited space-charge accumulation) diodes; InP diodes; Avalanche transit time devices; IMPATT (impact-avalanche transit time) diode; Parametric devices; Monolithic microwave integrated circuits; Hybrid microwave integrated circuits | |||

SPH 330 | Microwave Theory And Devices Ii | View Description | |

Microwave Theory And Devices Ii Description Microwaves filters; Non-reciprocal microwave devices; Microwaves transmission lines; Microwave waveguides and components: rectangular, cylindrical; Microwave cavities; Hybrid circuits; Directional couplers; Circulators and isolators; Microwave linear-beam tubes (O-type): reflex and multiple-cavity klystrons; Helix travelling-wave tubes (TWT); Coupled cavity, travel, high-power and grided TWT; Microwave cross-field tubes (M-type): magnetron oscillators; Forward-wave crossed-field amplifier; Backward-wave crossed-field oscillator; Strip lines: micro strip, parallel strip, coplanar and shielded strips; Microwave antennas; Microwave measurements | |||

SPH 331 | Analogue And Digital Communication Systems | View Description | |

Analogue And Digital Communication Systems Description General model of the telecommunication process; Modulation; The telephone network: Frequency-division multiplexing, supergroups; Underground cables; DC and AC telegraphy; Voice frequency systems (AM and FM); Teleprinter and telex systems; Submarine cable telegraphy; Linear CW modulation; Bandpass systems and signals; Amplitude modulation and demodulation; Frequency conversion; Phase and frequency modulation; Transmission bandwidth; Detection of FM and PM signals; Reception of CW modulated signals; Superheterodyne receivers; Scanning spectrum analysers; Frequency division multiplexing systems; FM stereo MUX; Quadrature-carrier MUX; Phase locked loops; Radiotransmitters and receivers for telecommunications; Sampling and pulse Modulation; Analog pulse modulation; Time-division multiplexing; Broadcasting and telecommunication microwave analogue systems; Limitations of analogue communication systems; Physical media and channels; Voice signal digitisation; Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM); Pulse-position modulation (PPM); Pulse-width modulation (PWM); Pulse-code modulation (PCM); Delta modulation; Time-division multiplexing of PCM signals; Digital radio; Amplitude and frequency-shift keying; Phase-shift keying; Quadrature Amplitude Modulation; Digital demodulation; QAM demodulation; Digital line-of-sight links; Digital switching systems; Digital Electronic Exchange (DEE); Digital encoding systems; Dialling; Coding and protocols: spectrum control, error control and correction, signal-space coding, spread spectrum; Synchronisation: phase loop locking, carrier recovery, timing recovery; Multiple access; Internet; Data transmission systems; Integrated service digital network (ISDN) | |||

Level : 4 | |||

Semester: Non Specified | |||

Course Code |
Course Name |
Course Hours | |

SPA 401 | Stellar Structure And Evolution. | View Description | |

Stellar Structure And Evolution. Description Basic Stellar properties: Apparent magnitudes, Stellar colours, Colour-magnitude, diagrams, Stellar Luminosities; Stellar Spectra, The spectral sequence, Stellar Temperatures, determination of stellar temperatures, Radiative transfer basics, Radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres, Pressure stratification, Line formation, The H spectrum, The H convection zone in stars, Chromospheres, Coronae, Winds; Hydrostatic Equilibrium, Thermal Equilibrium, Opacities, Convective instability, Energy production in stars; Basic equations of stellar structure, Homologous stellar models in radiative equilibrium, Calculation of stellar models; Pulsating stars; Evolution of low mass stars Evolution of high-mass stars, Star formation | |||

SPA 402 | Observational Astrophysics | View Description | |

Observational Astrophysics Description Fundamental observables; Fundamentals of locating targets in space and time: Coordinates, finding charts, Precession, Julian Date, Barycentric, heliocentric corrections, Proper motion, Aberration, Detection limits; Quantum efficiency: Telescopes, Detectors; Atmospheric effects: Absorption (air mass), Sky brightness, Speckles, Seeing & scintillation; Photometry; Spectroscopy; Polarimetry | |||

SPA 403 | Introduction To General Relativity And Cosmology | View Description | |

Introduction To General Relativity And Cosmology Description Space, Time and Gravitation; Tensors; Covariant Differentiation; Riemannian Geometry; Curvature Tensor; Geodesic Equation; The Einstein’s Field Equations; The Schwarzschild solution; The Cosmological Constant; Models of Universes; Black Holes | |||

SPA 404 | Fundamentals Of Space Flight | View Description | |

Fundamentals Of Space Flight Description Interplanetary Orbit, Hohmann Transfer Orbit, Geosynchronous Orbit, Geo-Stationary Orbit, Polar Orbit, Walking Orbit, Sun-Synchronous Orbit; Mission Inception, Experiments, Space-craft Specification, Telecommunication, Payload, Launch Vehicles, Launch Sites, Launch Windows, Constants of Motion, Trajectory Equation, Orbit Determination from Observations, Basic Orbital Maneuvers; Position and Velocity as a function of time | |||

SPA 405 | Advanced Remote Sensing: Digital Immage Processing | View Description | |

Advanced Remote Sensing: Digital Immage Processing Description Advanced remote sensing theory; Digital image processing techniques; Applications to environmental science; Digital image processing techniques for extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from the terrestrial and aquatic environments | |||

SPA 406 | Astronomy Project | View Description | |

Astronomy Project Description Students will undertake an individual supervised final year project and submit a report thereon during their fourth year of study. | |||

SPH 402 | Nuclear Physics | View Description | |

Nuclear Physics Description Isotopes: applications in medicine, industry and agriculture; Radiation dosimetry; Scattering of particles; Nuclear atom; Spin statistics; Nuclear detectors; Particle accelerators; Nuclear models; shell and liquid drop models; Mass and isotopic abundance of nuclei; Nuclear stability; Nuclear forces; Meson theory; Moessbauer effect; Elementary particles (introduction); Analytical nuclear techniques | |||

SPH 404 | Statistical Physics | View Description | |

Statistical Physics Description Introduction to statistical methods; Statistical descriptions of systems: macro and micro states; Statistical thermodynamics: irreversibility; Thermal interaction of macroscopic systems; Simple applications of statistical thermodynamics; Basic methods and results of statistical mechanics, ideal gas; Equipartion theorems; Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics; The statistical interpretation of entropy; Black body radiation | |||

SPH 405 | Electrodynamics Ii | View Description | |

Electrodynamics Ii Description Energy, force and momentum relations in the electromagnetic field; Electromagnetic Waves; Plane e-m waves in a non-conducting medium; Polarization; Plane waves in conducting medium; Wave equation for potentials, solution of the wave equation; Radiation fields and radiated energy, Retarded potentials; Radiation by an accelerated charge | |||

SPH 412 | Plasma Physics | View Description | |

Plasma Physics Description Introductory concepts; Plasma parameters; Governing equations; Kinetic theory; Gas dynamics; Continuity equations; Dynamics of particle or orbit theory; Collective behaviour of plasma; Hydromagnetic waves; Plasma stability; Elementary theory of charge conductivity | |||

SPH 415 | Applied Geophysics | View Description | |

Applied Geophysics Description Elementary study of gravitational, magnetic, seismic and thermal properties of the earth; Measurement, interpretation, application to earth structure and exploration; Methods of geophysical prospecting e.g., seismic, magnetic, gravity, electrical, electromagnetic, remote sensing; Borehole logging techniques | |||

SPH 417 | Aeronomy | View Description | |

Aeronomy Description Essential characteristics of the upper atmosphere; Basic physical properties (gas laws, continuity, thermal equilibrium, collision, diffusion), properties of magnetoplasma, observational techniques of the upper atmosphere; Physical aeronomy, the Chapman production function, photochemical principles, structure of ionosphere, structure of magnetosphere, magnetic storms and effect on ionized regions; Stratosphere; Ozone layer | |||

SPH 431 | Antenna Theory And Propagation Of Radio Waves | View Description | |

Antenna Theory And Propagation Of Radio Waves Description Maxwell’s equations; Electromagnetic fields and theory of radiation; Poynting vector and flow of power; Guided waves and waveguides; Retarded magnetic vector potential; Radiation of a dipole; Antenna fundamentals; Characteristics and parameters of antennas: directivity, gain, effective area, radiation impedance; Dipole antenna; Travelling-wave antenna; Linear antenna arrays; Multiplication of patterns; Thin linear antenna; Cylindrical, biconical, loop, helical, slot, micro strip, horn, reflector and dielectric antenna; Wide-band antennas; Antenna synthesis; Antenna practice: Antennas at low, medium and high frequencies; VHF and UHF antennas; TV transmitting and receiving antennas; Radar and microwaves communication antennas; Aircraft antennas; Antenna measurements
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SPH 432 | Satellite And Mobile Communication Systems | View Description | |

Satellite And Mobile Communication Systems Description General requirements of satellite communication; Digital communication for satellite systems; Geometrical consideration of geo-stationary satellites; Orbits; Earth-satellite distance; Station antenna; Pointing angles; Earth coverage; Earth station technology: transmitters, receivers; Antenna system; Satellite repeater station technology; Altitude and orbit sub-system; Telemetry; Tracking and command; Electric power supply; Launching and positioning of a geo-stationary satellite; Payload; Calculations of velocity increment; Orbit inclination correction; Characteristics of thrusters and launch vehicles; Station keeping for inclination correction; Astronomical consideration on movement of satellite; Digital communication systems used from space to ground via satellite; Elements of cellular radio system design; Specifications of analogue systems; Cell coverage for signal and traffic; Cell-site antennas; Mobile antennas; Co-channel interference reduction; Types of non-channel interference; Frequency management and channel assignment; Handoffs and dropped calls; Operational techniques and technologies; Switching; Data links; Microwave links; System evaluation; Digital cellular systems; Intelligent call concept and applications; Intelligent network for wireless communication | |||

**DEGREE DOCUMENTS**

Brochure | Download |

SPA302_STUDY-GUIDE | Download |

SPH 103 - Waves and optics | Download |

SPH 201 MECHANICS II STUDY GUIDE | Download |

SPH 313 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS STUDY GUIDE | Download |